Recommendations for improving human resources management at tan cang 128 joint stock company

  • 65 trang
  • file .docx
MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION MINISTRY OF EDUCATION & TRAINING
VIETNAM MARITIME UNIVERSITY
STUDENT NAME: NGUYEN NGOC TUYEN
DISSERTATION
GLOBAL STUDIES AND MARITIME AFFAIRS
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING HUMAN
RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT TAN CANG-128 JOINT
STOCK COMPANY
HAI PHONG – 2015
MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION MINISTRY OF EDUCATION & TRAINING
VIETNAM MARITIME UNIVERSITY
STUDENT NAME: NGUYEN NGOC TUYEN
CLASS : GMA 02
DISSERTATION
GLOBAL STUDIES AND MARITIME AFFAIRS
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING HUMAN
RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT TAN CANG-128 JOINT
STOCK COMPANY
Supervisor: Ms. Pham Thi Yen
Division: Logistics
Faculty: Economics
HAI PHONG – 2015
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
PREFACE
In the context of renewing the economy and the trend of international economic
integration, organizations also have big changes. Some enterprises thanks to the
adaptation of with mechanism to be able to compete, improve efficiency in production
and business as well as strengthen their position and improve its brand in economies
with various types of facility property belonging to different economic sectors. But
besides that, there are also enterprises who are still passive, slowly response with the
fluctuations of the economy, do not promote these strengths to overcome their
weaknesses. There are many factors that make the success of the enterprise, the
resource is one of those factors: financial resources, personnel resources (workforce) ...
these resources are important and support for each other to make a success of this the
enterprise. Although a business has abundant financial resources and growing, it is also
meaningless without human factors. People will turn modern machinery so that it can
promote its effectiveness in creating products. Talking to people in an organization, it
is not a person that is speaking generally about quantity and quality or the capacity,
working efficiency of employees. All activities within an enterprise are directly
participated or indirectly by humans, if enterprises create, use well this source then that
is a huge advantage compared with other firms in the market.
The aim of the thesis on the basis of study of basic theory and the reality of the use of
human resources of enterprises, discovering the advantages and disadvantages to
propose several measures to improve more efficient use human resources, to help
enterprise improve the efficiency of production and business. I hope this dissertation
can help enterprise achieve high efficiency in the future.
I declare that this report is my own unaided work. It has not been submitted
before.
If violated, I am solely responsible for and bear the punishments of the Institution and
University.
Student: Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page i
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
During internship and completion of this dissertation report, I have received the
attention and enthusiastic support of the board of directors of New Port Company and
the dedicated guidance of staffs in the company. Simultaneously, I would like to thank
the faculty of International School of Education, especially I would like to express my
sincere gratitude to my advisors Ms. Pham Thi Yen and Ms. Minh Trang for the
continuous support of my dissertation and related research, for their patience,
motivation immense knowledge and have always followed closely and enthusiastically
help so that I can finish this dissertation. Her guidance helped me in all the time of
research and writing of this thesis. I could not have imagined having a better advisor
and mentor for my dissertation...
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page ii
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
LISTS OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Steps in human sources plan…………………………………………………....7
Figure 1.2: Steps in work implementation capability……………………………………..14
Figure 1.3: Payroll system structure in the enterprise…………………………………....15
Figure 2.1: Organizational structure of Saigon Newport…………………………… .....21
Figure 2.2: Organizational structure at Tan Cang-128…………………………………..23
Figure 2.3: Container yard at Tan Cang-128……………………………………… ..……24
Figure 2.4: Quayside at Tan Cang-128………………………………………… ..………..25
Figure 2.5: Equipment in Tan Cang-128……………………………………………………26
Figure 2.6: Total output and turnover of Tan Cang-128…………………………………26
Figure 2.7: Recruitment process in Tan Cang-128………………………………… ....…35
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page iii
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
LISTS OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Labor structure at Tan Cang-128… ……..…………………………………….28
Table 2.2: The situation of working age……… ………...………………………………….29
Table 2.3: Labor situation in age…...……………………………………...….…………….30
Table 2.4: Labor situation in educational level…….……………………………..……....31
Table 2.5: The work implementation capability of employee in 2014…….………...…35
Table 2.6: Coefficient in company…………………………………….……………………..38
Table 2.7: Human resources assignment by gender at Tan Can-128…..………………43
Table 3.1: The expected recruitment……………………………… ...……………………...48
Table 3.2: The reduction of labor at several departments by expected………………49
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page iv
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
TABLE OF CONTENT
PREFACE......................................................................................................................i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................................ii
LISTS OF FIGURES..................................................................................................iii
LISTS OF TABLES....................................................................................................iv
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1
CHAPTER I: THE THEORETICAL BASIC OF HUMAN RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT.........................................................................................................3
1.1. Overview of human resources............................................................................3
1.1.1. Definition.........................................................................................................3
1.1.2. The role of human resources...........................................................................3
1.2. Human resources management...........................................................................4
1.2.1. Definition.........................................................................................................4
1.2.2. The target of human resource management....................................................4
1.2.3. The role of human resources management.....................................................5
1.3. Basic contents of human resources management...............................................5
1.3.1. Human resources planning.............................................................................5
1.3.2. Labor norms....................................................................................................6
1.3.2.1. Definition.....................................................................................................6
1.3.2.2. The role of labor norms...............................................................................7
1.3.3. Human resources recruitment.........................................................................7
1.3.4. Human resources arrangement.......................................................................8
1.3.4.1. Orientation...................................................................................................8
1.3.4.2. Transferring.................................................................................................8
1.3.4.3. Nomination..................................................................................................9
1.3.5. Training and developing human resources...................................................10
1.3.5.1. Determining needs of training...................................................................10
1.3.5.2. Determining target of training...................................................................11
1.3.5.3. Selecting appropriate methods..................................................................11
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page v
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
1.3.5.4. Implementing training program................................................................12
1.3.6. Assessing the capability of work implementation.........................................12
1.3.6.1. Purpose......................................................................................................12
1.3.6.2. The contents and order of implementation................................................13
1.3.7. The remuneration..........................................................................................15
1.3.7.1. The structure of payroll system in enterprise............................................15
1.3.7.2. The forms of salary....................................................................................16
CHAPTER II: EVALUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT
TAN CANG-128 JOINT STOCK COMPANY.........................................................17
2.1. Introduction of company..................................................................................17
2.1.1. General introduction.....................................................................................17
2.1.1.1. Saigon Newport.........................................................................................17
2.1.1.2. Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock Company.........................................................19
2.1.2. The process of formation and development..................................................20
2.1.3. Organizational structure...............................................................................20
2.1.4. Infrastructure................................................................................................22
2.1.4.1. Wharf and warehouse, container yard system...........................................22
2.1.4.2. Equipment..................................................................................................24
2.1.5. Several statistics of Tan Can-128 Joint Stock Company..............................25
2.2. General information of labor situation in Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock Company
26
2.2.1. Labor characteristics in company.................................................................26
2.2.2. Labor structure in company..........................................................................26
2.2.3. Classifying the labor situation in Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock Company.......27
2.2.3.1. Classification in age..................................................................................27
2.2.3.2. Classification in gender.............................................................................28
2.2.3.3. Classification in educational level.............................................................29
2.3. The current situation in human resources management of Tan Cang-128 Join
Stock Company...........................................................................................................30
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page vi
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
2.3.1. Human resources planning...........................................................................30
2.3.2. Human resources recruitment.......................................................................31
2.3.3. Human resources training and development................................................34
2.3.4. Evaluating the capability of work implementation.......................................35
2.3.5. Labor remuneration......................................................................................37
2.3.6. Human resources arrangement......................................................................40
2.4. General evaluation of human resources management in Tan Cang-128 Joint
Stock Company...........................................................................................................42
2.4.1. Advantages....................................................................................................42
2.4.2. Disadvantages...............................................................................................43
CHAPTER III: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING HUMAN
RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT TAN CANG-128 JOINT STOCK COMPANY
....................................................................................................................................45
3.1. Future plan........................................................................................................45
3.2. Recommendations for improving human resources management....................46
3.2.1. Recommendations for improving the training and development of human
resources.....................................................................................................................46
3.2.2. Recommendations for improving the evaluation of work implementation....47
3.2.3. Recommendations for improving encouragement for laborers........................48
3.2.4. Recommendations for improving the quality of human resources recruitment50
3.2.5. Recommendations for utilizing actively and reasonably labor........................52
CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................54
Reference....................................................................................................................55
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page vii
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
INTRODUCTION
1. The reason of research
In our contemporary life, the human resources has indeed become the most valuable
assets, is the key to the success of each organization, each enterprise in the market
economy. Therefore, to be survival, get empowering and sustainable development in
the market economy, one of the effective measures is that enterprises have to enhance
the efficient use of its human resources. Each enterprise has different approaches with
enterprise practices and brings the highest efficiency.
During practicing at Tan Cang-128, through the study of the use of human resources in
the enterprise, I found that firms have been actively carried out this task by effective
way. However, because the conditions are limited so the utilization of personnel
resources in the enterprise has some limitations which requires enterprise has to take
measures to solve. Because of the importance of improving efficient use of human
resources combined with passion for research on human resources and the desire to
contribute my small part in solving the practical use of personnel resources in
enterprise, I boldly chose research topics: “Recommendations for improving human
resources management at Tan Cang-128”.
2. The purpose of research
I write this dissertation with the purpose is that propose recommendations for
improving human resources. Besides objectives:
 Introduce the theoretical basic of human resources management
 Introduce Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock Company
 Evaluate and propose recommendations to improve human resources at Tan
Cang-128.
3. The scope of research
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 1
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
In the scope of research, I give an overview about human resources management.
Particularly I analyze 2 main parts of human resources management at Tan Cang-128
Joint Stock Company and clarify them in the presentation, they are:
 Human resources training and development
 Labor remuneration
4. The methodology
Quantities research: Can generalize research findings size, useful for obtaining data
that allow quantitative predictions to be made. Data collection using some quantitative
methods is relatively quick (e.g: telephone, g-mail). Provides precise, quantitative,
numerical data and it is useful for studying large numbers of people.
Secondary research: references and data are collected from websites, journal articles,
books and company website.
5. Structure of dissertation
My dissertation includes three main chapters:
 Chapter I: Theoretical basic of human resources management
 Chapter II: Evaluation of human resources at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
 Chapter III: Recommendations for improving human resources management at
Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock Company
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 2
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
CHAPTER I: THE THEORETICAL BASIC OF HUMAN
RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
1.1. Overview of human resources
1.1.1. Definition
Human resources are understood as one of the most important resources for the
development of society. Human resources are different with other resources in that it is
influenced by many factors of nature, social psychology and economy. Understanding
in a more detailed way, human resources are the whole people of working age, who
have the capacity to work.
For a business, according to the textbook of “Human Resource Management” of
National Economics University (2014), “the human resources include all the
employees working in that organization, and personnel are understood as a resource of
each person, which includes mental and physical strength". In addition, physical
strength expresses body health, it depends on the size, health condition of each person,
living standards, income, diet, work regime and relax...Physical strength of human
depends on age and working time, gender... Mentality reflects the thinking,
understanding, the acquisition of knowledge, skills, aptitudes and attitudes, confidence
and dignity...of each person. In the manufacturing business, the exploitation of the
potentials of human physical is limited. The potential exploitation about the mentality
of the people is at a new level, never exhausted, because this is still more mysterious
treasure of man.
1.1.2. The role of human resources
Effective and appropriate management, exploitation and use of the resources of the
country contribute significantly in promoting economic development - society of each
country. In these resources, human resources have decisive role in the existence and
development of the country. Therefore the training and constant improvement the
quality of human resources are top concern of society.
Human resources are valuable internal resources. If we exploit and promote well, it
will be important to create other resources. To continuously satisfy the needs of the
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 3
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
physical, mental increasingly be enhanced, in terms of other resources are limited,
human increasingly aims at the maximum exploitation of its potential ability to
gradually replace other resources. The development of the economy - society cannot
lack of skilled workforce, the experts and technical scientist with highly qualified,
dynamic leaders, resourceful.
1.2. Human resources management
1.2.1. Definition
Human resource management is the planning, organization, control and control of
human activities in order to achieve the business objectives of the organization.
Human resources management is an administrative function of an organization that
exists to provide the human resources needed for organizational activities and to
manage the general employee-employer relationship. It can be defined as obtaining,
using and maintaining a satisfied workforce. It is a significant part of management
concerned with employees at work and with their relationship within the organization
(MSG Presentations, 2015).
According to Tran (2010) Human Resource Management is a system of philosophy,
policy and functioning of attracting, training-developing and maintaining human of an
organization to achieve optimal results for both the organization and workers.
1.2.2. The target of human resource management
Human Resource Management will help administrators achieve the purpose, results
through others. Human Resource Management study issues of people management in
organizations at the micro-level, there are two basic objectives:
 Use effective human resource to enhance labor productivity and improve
organizational effectiveness.
 To meet the increasing needs of employees, facilitate employees to maximize
individual capacities, who are stimulated and encouraged the most at the
workplace and loyal, conscientious with enterprise.
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 4
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
1.2.3. The role of human resources management
According to Tran (2010), in economic terms human resources management helps
enterprises to exploit the potential of improving labor productivity and competitive
advantage of enterprises on human resources.
In social terms, human resources management represents the views of workers' rights,
promotes the position, the value of laborers, focuses on resolving harmoniously the
benefit relation between organizations and enterprises and laborers, contributes to
reduce conflict between capital and labor in the enterprises.
In addition, Manisha Vaghela (2011) argued that human resources management
develops training for employees and providing the resources they need to stay up-to-
date on their jobs, several resources include a library of industry information
encouraging employees to continue their education by subsidizing tuition costs and
notifying employees of seminars and classes that would assist in the development of
their job skills. When used in this manner, human resources management keeps your
workforce currency on the changes in the industry it allows your company to adapt
quicker to changes and keeps you ahead of the competition.
1.3. Basic contents of human resources management
1.3.1. Human resources plan
Human resource planning is the process of researching, identifying human resource
needs, providing policy and implementing programs and activities to ensure businesses
having sufficient human resources with the qualities, suitable skills to perform the job
with productivity, quality and efficiency. Typically, the planning process is performed
in the following steps:
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 5
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
Analyzing environmental, determining
1
objectives and strategies for businesses.
Analyzing the current state of human resources
2
management in the enterprise.
Forecasting workload (with the goals and plans
for long-term, medium-term) or determining
3
workload and conducting work analysis (the
short-term goal, plan).
Forecasting the demand of human resources
(with the goals and plans in long-term, medium-
4 term), or determining the demand of personnel
resources (with the goals and plans in short
term).
Analyzing supply and demand relationship of
human resources, the ability to adjust and
5 recommend policies, plans and programs which
help enterprises adapt to the new needs and
improve efficient use of personnel.
Implementing the policies, plans and programs
6 of human resources management in the
enterprise in step (5).
Examining and evaluating the situation of
7
implementation.
Figure 2.1: Steps in human resources plan
Source: Tran (2010)
1.3.2. Labor norms
1.3.2.1. Definition
Labor level is regulations for workers to complete a certain workload. Labor norms is
the process of determining labor level, certain consumption levels needed to laborers
completing a certain task.
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 6
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
Labor levels are classified into three main categories are: the duration and rate of
production, the level of service.
1.3.2.2. The role of labor norms
As a basis for determining the rights and responsibilities of workers, in order to
accurately assess the situation of the work of employees. Assess skill levels, the level
of contribution of each member to the overall result of the business, and on that basis
establish reasonable salary regime.
The labor norms have an important role for human resource management issues.
Through labor norms, administrators can assess objectively the degree of completion of
work of employee, consciousness and responsibility for their assigned work.
1.3.3. Human resources recruitment
Inside applicant source of enterprises: For people who are working in enterprises, when
we recruit these people to do in the higher position, the position that they are
undertaking, we have created good incentives for everyone working in the enterprise.
We can use the following methods: using recruitment notices - notices of job position
hiring. This notice is sent to all employees in the enterprise. This notice includes
information on the duties of work and the qualifications required to recruit or the
introduction of officials and employees in the enterprise.
Outside applicant source from enterprises: They are newcomers to apply for a job,
these people include: Friends of employees or former employees (former employee of
the company), candidates apply for a job; employees of other companies, universities
and colleges, the unemployed, self-employed people. We can use the following
methods: Through advertisement: advertisement is a form of attracting candidates that
is very effective, especially for large enterprises. Through labor service office: the
usage the labor service office has benefits is that reduce the searching time,
interviewing and selecting candidates or recruitment of graduates from universities and
colleges. Other forms: according to authority's introduction, from employees in the
enterprise; by candidates to getting a job themselves and via the Internet.
1.3.4. Human resources arrangement
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 7
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
Arrangement and utilization of human resources in the enterprise is the arrangement of
internal employees in business to put the right person in right position in order to meet
the requirements of the business production and make demands of maturity and
development from individuals suitable with the requirements of the business, (Tran
2010).
1.3.4.1. Orientation
Orientation is a program designed to help new employees become familiar with the
business and began their work effectively. An orientation program includes
information on, (Tran 2010):
 The daily work needs to be done and how to do the work.
 Wages and remunerated methods.
 Bonuses, benefits and services.
 The rules and regulations on labor discipline, labor safety.
 The means for daily life, health and information.
 The organizational structure of the enterprises
 Objectives and tasks of business production, products and services ...
 The history and tradition of the business.
 The fundamental value of the enterprise
1.3.4.2. Transferring
Transferring is the re-arrangement of workers from this job to another job or from this
place to another place. Transferring may be proposed from the business side, may also
be proposed from workers with the consent of the business. From the business side,
transferring can be made due to the following reasons, Tran (2010):
 To regulate human resources among departments or to reduce costs in the
department where the business is impaired.
 In order to fill the vacant positions due to reasons such as the expansion of
production; workers move away, die, retire or terminate the contract.
 To fix these flaws in labor arrangement.
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 8
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
The transferring types:
 Transferring of production: to regulate labor due to the demand of production
 Alternative transferring: to fill vacant job positions
 Transferring of flaws correction: to fix errors in recruitment or arrangement of
labor.
1.3.4.3. Nomination
Nomination is that put workers in a job position with higher salary, prestige and greater
responsibility, with better working conditions and more opportunities for development,
Tran (2010).
The purpose of nominations is that payrolls employees in a vacant working position
where the seat is rated as higher value of their old position in order to meet the demand
of payrolls of officials and development of enterprise, and meet the development needs
of each employee.
There are two types of nominations:
 Horizontal Nomination: moving workers from one job position in one
department to another job position with higher rank or equivalent in other parts.
 Straight Nomination: moving employees from one location at an existing job to
higher position in the same department.
The nomination's activities if they were organized and managed, will bring many
positive effects for both workers and enterprises:
 Meeting the needs of human resources and development of enterprises, and use
the talent of employees.
 Encouraging employee best serve according to their abilities and strive to
improve professional skills.
 Help enterprises can retain skilled workers, talent and attract skilled workers to
enterprises.
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 9
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
 In order to the process of promotion achieves good results and has a positive
effect, enterprises need to has the appropriate policies to encourage the
development of the individual and the nomination procedures are clear,
consistent.
1.3.5. Training and developing human resources
The demand for training and staff development in the organization increased rapidly
with the development of cooperation and international competition, advanced
technological and the pressure on society and economy. Training is considered as a
fundamental element in order to meet the strategic goals of the organization. In the
present life, the quality of employees has become one of the important competitive
advantages of businesses around the world. The reality has proven that investment in
human resources can bring greater efficiency compared with the investment in
renovation and technical equipment and other factors of production and business
processes. Therefore in the business, training, human resources development should be
implemented organizationally. Training is a systematic process to nourish the
accumulation of skills, rules, concepts and attitudes leading to more proportionality
between the characteristics of employees and the requirements of the work.
Development is a long process to improve the capacity and motivation of employees in
order to turn them into valuable future members of that organization. Development
includes not only training but also career, experience…
1.3.5.1. Determining needs of training
For the training programs bring practical effects, it is important to correctly identify
training needs. The training programs should be conducted only when enterprises have
sufficient basis to conclude enterprises that the working efficiency of enterprises and
individuals is not high due to their employees lacking knowledge and skills that are not
appropriate with work. The identification of training needs of the enterprise must be
analyzed to aggregate demand categories:
 Enterprise analysis: analysis of enterprises needs to assess effectively indicators
in terms of organization, preparation plans of the adjacent staff, employees and
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 10
Recommendations for improving human resources management at Tan Cang-128 Joint Stock
Company
organizational environment. In environmental analysis, organizations need to
assess fully the perspectives, sentiments and beliefs of the members of the
enterprise, for organizations, businesses and the impact of inadequate training
problems to have no good points in the organizational environment.
 Operational Analysis: analyze operational determine what kind of skills and
behaviors necessary to perform the job well. Analysis focused operational
determine what employees need to do the job well
 Analysis staff: This analysis type focuses on the competencies and personal
characteristics of employee, is used to determine who needs to be trained and
what skills, knowledge, opinion need to be perceived or focused during training
and development.
1.3.5.2. Determining target of training
The ultimate goal of training is to achieve the highest efficiency in terms of the
organization, the maximum use of personnel. However, to achieve that ultimate goal,
the enterprise still needs to achieve other intermediate goals. Therefore, in the process
of training must present accuracy, clarity, brief of set targets. Without them the
construction of the training programs will be difficult to achieve high efficiency,
difficult to determine the results that should be achieved of the training programs.
1.3.5.3. Selecting appropriate methods
The training methods are various and suitable for each object, from student in
internships time, direct production workers, first-line level administrations (inspectors,
the workshop manager) to intermediate and advanced level administrations. Each
approach has implementation ways, advantages and disadvantages that enterprises
should consider to choose for suitable working conditions and characteristics in terms
of labor and its financial resources. With each training method has respective facilities
requiring enterprises to choose how to actually suit their circumstances.
1.3.5.4. Implementing training program
According to the textbook of Tran (2010), there are several training programs:
Nguyen Ngoc Tuyen- Class: GMA02 Page 11