Lý thuyết và bài tập giới từ ôn thi thpt quốc gia môn tiếng anh

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Lý thuyết và bài tập giới từ ôn thi THPT Quốc gia 2016 môn Tiếng Anh
Giới từ là từ hay cụm từ thường được dùng trước danh từ hay đại từ để chỉ mối liên hệ giữa các từ này
với các thành phần khác trong câu.
I. Các loại giới từ (Kinds of preposition):
1. Giới từ chỉ thời gian (Prepositions of time):
• IN (trong, vào) được dùng để chỉ các buổi trong ngày (ngoại trừ at night), tháng, năm, mùa, thập niên,
thế kỷ hoặc khoảng thời gian ở tương lai.
Ex: in the morning, in January, in 1990, in the summer, in the 1990s, in the 20th century,
in the Middle Age, in ten minutes
IN TIME: đúng lúc, kịp lúc
Ex: Will you be home in time for dinner?
• AT (vào lúc) được dùng để chỉ thời điểm hoặc các kỳ nghỉ (tòan bộ những ngày trong kỳ nghỉ)
Ex: at 6 o’clock, at night, at noon, at midnight, at bedtime, at dawn, at the weekend,
at Christmas, at New Year, at Easter
At : được dùng trong một số cụm từ chỉ thời gian: at the moment, at present, at the same time, at
once, at that time, at first, at last
• ON (vào) được dùng để chỉ ngày trong tuần, ngày tháng trong năm, ngày trong kỳ nghỉ hoặc các buổi
trong ngày cụ thể.
Ex: on Monday, on 5th January, on Christmas Day, on Monday morning, on one’s birthday
ON TIME: đúng giờ
Ex: The train arrived right on time.
• FOR (trong) + khoảng thời gian: for two months, for a long time
• SINCE (từ, từ khi) + mốc thời gian: since last Monday, since 2002
• UNTIL/ TILL (đến, cho đến): until 5 o’clock, till midnight
• BEFORE (trước, trước khi): before lunchtime
• AFTER (sau, sau khi): after luchtime
• DURING (trong, suốt): during World War II
• BY (vào lúc): by the end of May
• FROM … TO (từ … đến): from morning to noon
2. Giới từ chỉ nơi chốn (Prepositions of place):
• AT (ở, tại) được dùng để chỉ vị trí tại một điểm.
Ex: at home, at school, at the bus stop, at the airport, at the office, at the cinema, at the seaside, at the
grocer’s, at the top/ bottom, at the beginning/ end, at the front/ back
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* Lưu ý: arrive at the village/ the airport/ the railway station
But: arrive in Vietnam/ Ho Chi Minh City
• IN (trong, ở trong) được dùng để chỉ vị trí trong một diện tích, một không gian; dùng trước tên
đường, tên thị trấn, thành phố, quốc gia, miền, phương hướng hoặc dùng với các phương tiện đi lại
bằng xe hơi (car).
Ex: in a box, in a small room, in the countryside, in the world, in Oxford Street, in London, in
Vietnam, in the east, in a car/ taxi
* Lưu ý: in a car (trong xe hơi), but: by car (bằng xe hơi)
• ON (trên, ở trên) được dùng để chỉ vị trí trên bề mặt, số tầng trong một tòa nhà, trước tên đường (US)
hoặc dùng với một số phương tiện đi lại.
Ex: on the table, on the wall, on the ground, on the first floor, on Albert Street, on a bus/ train/ plane/
(motor)bike/ horse, on foot
On cịn được dùng trong một số cụm từ: on the left/ right, on the farm, on the coast/ beach, on TV/
radio…
• ABOVE/ OVER (bên trên – không tiếp xúc với bề mặt)
Ex: Her name comes above mine on the list.
The sign over the door said: “Exit”.
• UNDER/ BELOW (ở dưới, dưới)
Ex: The shoes are under the chair.
The temperature has fallen below zero.
• IN FRONT OF (ở phía trước), BEHIND (ở phía sau), IN THE MIDDLE OF (ở giữa)
Ex: I hung my raincoat in front of/ behind the door.
• NEAR (gần)
Ex: Is there a train station near here?
• NEXT TO, BY, BESIDE (bên cạnh, kế bên)
Ex: Peter is standing by the gate.
• BETWEEN (ở giữa hai người/ vật), AMONG (ở giữa nhiều người/ vật)
Ex: Tom is sitting between Mary and Peter.
Tom is among the crowd.
• INSIDE (ở bên trong), OUTSIDE (ở bên ngòai)
Ex: Luckily, no one was inside the building when it collapsed.
• OPPOSITE (đối diện)
Ex: They sat opposite each other.
3. Giới từ chỉ sự chuyển động (Prepositions of movement):
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• TO (đến)
Ex: He goes to school by bus.
• FROM … TO (từ … đến)
Ex: How far is it from New York to California?
• THROUGH (xuyên qua)
Ex: They walked through the woods.
• ACROSS (ngang qua)
Ex: The children ran straight across in front of our car.
• ROUND/ AROUND (quanh)
Ex: The earth moves round/ around the sun.
• ALONG (dọc theo)
Ex: We had a walk along the river bank.
• UP (lên)/ DOWN (xuống)
Ex: We followed her up the stair.
• TOWARD(S) (về phía)
Ex: Mary stood up and walked towards Peter.
4. Một số giới từ khác:
- Giới từ chỉ mục đích: for, to, in order to, so as to (để)
- Giới từ chỉ nguyên nhân: for, because of, owning to (bởi vì)
- Giới từ chỉ phương tiện: by, with (bằng), through (nhờ qua)
- Giới từ chỉ thể cách: with ( với), without (không có)
- Giới từ chỉ sự tương quan: according to (tùy theo), instead of (thay vì), in spite of (mặc dù)
II. Giới từ theo sau danh từ, tính từ và động từ (Prepositions following nouns, adjectives, and
verbs):
1. Noun + preposition:
FOR
affection for: yêu mến need for: sự cần thiết cho
demand for: nhu cầu về reputation for: sự nổi tiếng
reason for: lý do về regret for: nuối tiếc
responsibility for: trách nhiệm admiration for: khâm phục
talent for: tài năng desire for: sự mong muốn
cure for: việc chữa trị cho
IN
rise in: phát triển, tăng increase in: phát triển, tăng
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decresase in: giảm belief in: tin
experience in: có kinh nghiệm interest in: thích, quan tâm
delay in: trì hõan
OF
cause of: nguyên nhân advantage/ disadvantage of: thuận lợi/ bất lợi
knowledge of: kiến thức lack of: thiếu
opinion of: ý kiến benefit of: lợi ích
example of: ví dụ sense of: ý thức
TO
damage to: sự hư hại đối với invitation to: lời mời
reaction to: phản ứng solution to: giải pháp
attitude to: thái độ access to: phương tiện
threat to: đe dọa reply to: đáp lại
ON
effect on: ảnh hưởng influence on: ảnh hưởng
advice on: khuyên report on: báo cáo
WITH
relationship with: mối quan hệ connection with: sự liên quan với
contact with: sự tiếp xúc với association with: sự kết giao với
link with: liên kết với trouble with: có vấn đề với
BETWEEN
difference between: sự khác biệt comparison between: so sánh
2. Adjective + preposition:
ABOUT
annoyed (with sb) about: bực tức excited about: hào hứng
anxious/ worried about: lo lắng furious about: điên tiết về
careful about: cẩn thận về happy about: hạnh phúc
careless about: bất cẩn về sad/ upset about: buồn/ thất vọng
concerned about: quan tâm serious about: nghiêm túc về
confused about: nhầm lẩn về sorry about/ for: xin lỗi về
AT
amazed at: kinh ngạc về good at: dở về (good for: tốt cho)
bad at: dở về (bad for: xấu cho) quick at: nhanh nhẹn về
clever at: khéo léo về skillful at: khéo léo về
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excellent at: xuất sắc về surprised at: ngạc nhiên về
FOR
available for: có sẵn late for: trễ
eager for: nóng lòng chờ necessary for: cần thiết cho
eligible for: xứng đáng cho responsible for: chịu trách nhiệm
famous for: nổi tiếng useful for: có ích cho
known for: nổi tiếng
FROM
absent from: vắng mặt ở free from/ of: thóat khỏi
different from: khác với safe from: an tòan
IN
disappointed in/ with: thất vọng involved in: có liên quan
interested in: quan tâm rich in: giàu có, phong phú
successful in: thành công
OF
afraid of: sợ full of: đầy
ahead of: đi trước guilty of: có tội
ashamed of: hổ thẹn independent of: độc lập
aware/ conscious of: ý thức jealous of: ghen tị
capable of: có khả năng proud of: tự hào
certain of/ about: chắc về scared of: hoảng sợ
confident of: tự tin short of: cạn kiệt
envious of: ghen tị sure of: chắc
fond of: thích tired of: chán
frightened of: sợ typical of: tiêu biểu
TO
accustomed to: quen grateful to sb for sth: biết ơn
addicted to: nghiện opposed to: phản đối
committed to: tận tụy harmful to: có hại cho
contrary to: trái với important to: quan trọng với
dedicated to: tận tụy married to: thành hơn với
devoted to: tận tâm open to: mở ra cho
equal to: bằng với similar to: tương tự với
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essential to/ for: cần thiết cho
WITH
acquainted with: quen với friendly with: thân thiện
angry with/ at sb about sth: giận happy with/ about: hạnh phúc về
angry with/ at sb for doing sth: giận honest with: thành thật với
bored with/ fed up with: chán với identical with: giống hệt với
busy with: bận rộn với impatient with: mất kiên nhẫn với
crowded with: đông đúc patient with: kiên nhẫn với
disappointed with: thất vọng pleased/ satisfied with: hài lòng với
familiar with: quen thuộc với popular with: phổ biến với
OF/ TO
generous/ good/ kind/ nice/ polite/ rude/ stupid… to sb
generous/ good/ kind/ nice/ polite/ rude/ stupid… of sb to do sth
3. Verb + preposition:
ABOUT
care about sb/ sth: coi trọng remind sb about sth: nhắc ai nhớ
(care for: thích) (remind sb of sb/ sth: gợi ai nhớ đến)
complain about: phàn nàn talk about sb/ sth: nói chuyện về
dream about/ of sb/ sth: mơ về tell sb about sb/ sth: nói với ai về
forget about: quên think about/ of sb/ sth: nghĩ về
hear about sth: nghe nói về warn sb about/ of sth: cảnh báo về
(hear from sb: nghe tin tức của ai) worry about: lo lắng
learn about: biết
AT
aim (sth) at sb/ sth: nhắm vào shout at sb: la mắng ai
arrive at/ in: đến tại (shout to sb: goi lớn ai)
glance at sb/ sth: liếc nhìn smile at sb: mỉm cười với ai
laugh at sb: cười nhạo ai stare at sb/ sth: nhìn chăm chú
look at sb/ sth: nhìn vào throw sth at sb: ném mạnh vào ai
point (sth) at sb/ sth: chĩa vào (throw sth to sb: ném cho ai bắt)
FOR
apply for sth: nộp đơn xin leave (a place) for: rời.... để đi đến
account for: giải thích look for sb/ sth: tìm kiếm
apologize for: xin lỗi (look after sb/ sth: chăm sóc)
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ask sb for sth: yêu cầu ai về pay for sth: trả tiền cho
blame sb for sth: đổ lỗi cho ai về search for sb/ sth: tìm kiếm
excuse for: xin lỗi thank sb for (doing) sth: cảm ơn
forgive sb for (doing) sth: tha thứ wait for sb/ sth: chờ đợi
hope for sth: hy vọng về
FROM
escape from: trốn thóat khỏi protect sb from sth: bảo vệ
prevent sb from (doing) sth: ngăn chặn suffer from sth: chịu, bị (bệnh, đau khổ…)
IN
believe in sb/ sth: tin vào specialize in sth: chuyên về
participate in: tham gia succeed in (doing) sth: thành công về
INTO
crash into: tông, đụng vào divide/ split into: chia ra
cut into: cắt ra thành translate (from a language) into: dịch ra
OF
accuse sb of (doing) sth: buộc tội ai disapprove of sth: không đồng ý
approve of: đồng ý, chấp thuận hear of: nghe tin
consist of sb/ sth: bao gồm suspect sb of (doing) sth: nghi ngờ
die of/ from: chết vì think of: nghĩ về
ON
concentrate on sth: tập trung vào live onsb/ sth: sống nhờ vào
congratulate sb on (doing) sth: chúc mừng plan on: kế hoạch
comment on: phê bình rely on: tin cậy
depend on: phụ thuộc spend (money) on sth: tiêu (tiền)
insist on (doing) sth: nài nỉ
TO
adapt to: thích nghi explain sth to sb: giải thích cho ai
add to: thêm vào happen to sb/ sth: xảy ra với
adjust to: điều chỉnh listen to: lắng nghe
apologize to sb for (doing) sth: xin lỗi ai về object to: phản đối
complain to sb about sth: phàn nàn prefer … to …: thích … hơn
describe sth to sb: mô tả cho ai talk/ speak to sb: nói với
devote to: cống hiến
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WITH
agree with: đồng ý fill with: làm đầy
argue with: cãi nhau với provide sb with sth: cung cấp
collide with: tông, đụng vào (provide sth for sb: cung cấp)
communicate with: giao tiếp supply sb with sth: cung cấp
compare with/to: so sánh (supply sth to sb: cung cấp)
EXERCISES
I. Fill in each blank with the correct preposition.
1. The price of electricity is going up _____ August.
2. They came to visit us _____ my birthday.
3. Did you have a good time _____ Christmas?
4. The children are really excited _____ their summer vacation.
5. We were very disappointed _____ the organization of the festival.
6. John missed a lot of lessons. He was ill _____ January to March.
7. Helen had said goodbye to everybody in the class _____ she left for the hometown.
8. My cat is very fond _____ fish.
9. I waited _____ 10 o’clock and then went home.
10. I can’t remember exactly when the accident happened. I think it was _____ nine and half past nine.
11. Are you acquainted _____ the lady?
12. _____ the children left, the house was very quiet.
13. These photographs were taken _____ a friend of mine.
14. The river Rhine flows _____ the North sea.
15. I shall meet you _____ the corner _____ the street.
16. I always come _____ school _____ foot.
17. He had learned the whole poem _____ heart.
18. He has waited _____ her for a long time.
19. He’s not very keen _____ watching football, but his wife is.
20. Are you worried _____ the final examination?
II. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of
the following questions.
1. _____ time _____ time I will examine you on the work you have done.
A. From / to B. At / to C. In / to D. With / to
2. This village is inhabited _____ tens of thieves.
A. with B. to C. by D. for
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3. God has bestowed _____ me many graces.
A. on B. for C. to D. with
4. Make a comment _____ this sentence!
A. to B. in C. on D. about
5. He’s a very wealthy man; a few hundred pounds is nothing _____ him.
A. for B. with C. to D. about
6. She does not show much affection _____ him.
A. with B. in C. for D. to
7. The clerk _____ that counter said those purses were _____ sale.
A. in/ for B. at/ on C. at/ in D. on/ on
8. Someone broke into the shop and made _____ with several TVs and videos.
A. of B. up C. out D. off
9. Old people like to descant _____ past memories.
A. in B. with C. on D. for
10. You should comply _____ the school rules.
A. to B. about C. with D. in
11. The people next door are furious _____ us _____ making so much noise last night.
A. at/ with B. with/ for C. for/ to D. about/ in
12. The Vietnamese participants always take part _____ sports events with great enthusiasm.
A. in B. on C. at D. to
13. He isn’t independent _____ any means. He depends _____ his father _____ everything.
A. by/ on/ in B. for/ on/ in C. of/ in/ for D. on/ in/ with
14. He may be quick _____ understanding but he isn’t capable _____ remembering anything.
A. in/ of B. on/ at C. at/ of D. of/ at
15. Mum is always busy _____ her work in the laboratory.
A. with B. at C. in D. of
16 Lan will stay there _____ the beginning in September _____ November.
A. from/ to B. till/ to C. from/ in D. till/ of
17. I would like to apply _____ the position of sales clerk that you advised in the Sunday newspaper.
A. for B. to C. with D. in
18. I have been looking _____ this book for months, and at last, I have found it.
A. over B. up C. for D. at
19. My sister is very fond _____ eating chocolate candy.
A. of B. with C. about D. at
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20. Who’s going to look _____ the children while you’re away?
A. at B. up C. after D. over
ANSWER:
I. 1. in 2. on 3. at 4. about 5. with
6. from 7. before 8. of 9. until 10. between
11. with 12. After 13. by 14. into 15. at/ of
16. to/ on 17. by 18. for 19. on 20. about
II. 1. A 2. C 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. C 7. B 8. B 9. C 10. C
11. D 12. A 13. A 14. C 15. B 16. A 17. A 18. C 19. A 20. C
III. Gạch chân đáp án đúng
1) Your father is very kind (with/for/to/in) David.
2) Hurry or you will be late (for/at/on/from) school.
3) Were they present (in/at/on/about) the meeting?
4) She was confused (with/on/about/in) the dates.
5) His book is different (about/from/for/between) mine.
6) Your plan is similar (with/to/of/for) his.
7) The boy is afraid (of/on/in/about) snakes.
8) She is accustomed (with/to/on/of) getting up early.
9) He was successful (in/with/of/to) his job.
10) That student is very quick (with/at/for/about) mathematics.
11) Iraq is rich (on/for/to/in) oil.
12) Are you aware (with/to/of/for) the time?
13) Are you acquainted (to/with/in/of) this man?
14) He has been absent (from/of/to/with) school lately.
15) They are interested (in/on/about/with) buying a new house.
16) Smoking is harmful (for/with/to/about) our health.
17) She is serious (with/about/of/for) learning to be a doctor.
18) I couldn’t believe what he said. It was contrary (to/with/for/in) his thought.
19) Our study is very important (for/with/to/about) our future and useful (for/to/with/in) our country.
20) Don’t give up your hope. Be confident (of/about/in/with) yourself.
21) I have some tickets available (for/to/of/with) you.
22) Are you capable (with/of/for/to) that job?
23) He is accustomed (to/with/for/in) driving fast like this.
24) Are you confident (with/of/about/in) what she has said?
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25) The room was available (with/for/to/on) 2 people.
26) Finally, Jack is successful (on/in/at/to) his trade.
27) This theatre is often crowded (with/to/on/about) viewers.
28) Your bag is similar (with/to/about/for) mine.
29) The bottle is full (with/of/in/at) water.
30) Poison is harmful (to/with/for/about) humans.
31) Cheques are useful (with/to/for/on) travellers.
32) Are you successful (on/in/at/to) your experiment?
33) She got back safe (for/from/with/to) her adventure.
34) It was very lucky (to/for/of/with) me that my bag was found.
35) He seems friendly (on/to/for/about) everyone in the village.
36) She was sad (about/for/with/to) my refusal.
37) Quang Linh is popular (with/for/to/in) folk songs.
38) The student is quick (with/at/on/to) understanding what the teacher explains.
39) The story is very pleasant (to/with/for/in) us.
40) He is very kind (to/of/with/for) me.
41) I’m capable (of/with/for/to) speaking two languages.
42) She is never late (to/for/with/from) work.
43) It was very nice (to/of/in/for) him to give me a lift.
44) Yesterday Nga was absent (with/from/to/for) class because she was ill.
45) Contrary (to/with/for/about) his doctor’s orders, he has gone back to work.
46) Don’t worry (about/with/to/for) the money! I’ll lend you.
47) They have been waiting (for/with/to/at) the bus for half an hour.
48) Why don’t you ask (with/to/for/on) a pay increase?
49) He took advantage (of/in/about/for) this opportunity to explain why he had done that.
50) The weeks went slowly (by/with/of/for).
51) You have to move this box to make room (for/to/about/with) the new television set.
52) Nowadays we rely increasingly (on/in/at/to) computers to regulate the flow of traffic in the town.
53) Translate these sentences (for/into/with/of) English.
54) Have you taken notice (to/for/of/with) the sign “No Smoking”?
55) Ken prefers Chinese food (about/to/over/with) French food.
56) Don’t shout (to/at/with/for) the child when he makes a mistake.
57) Last Sunday I was invited (to/on/in/at) his wedding party.
58) I have been looking (after/for/into/at) my dog for two days but I haven’t seen it yet.
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59) I don’t care (about/for/with/to) what they have said.
60) I talked to him so enjoyably that I lost track (to/with/of/for) the time.
61) He spent too much money (with/on/to/in) that car.
62) Do you believe (on/at/to/in) God?
63) You must make allowance (to/for/with/of) him because he has been ill.
64) May I start now? Yes, go (up/down/ahead/back).
65) She caught sight (with/of/to/for) a car in the distance.
66) She is leaving (to/for/with/at) Paris.
67) Don’t make noise! I’m concentrating (to/on/in/at) the question.
68) Things are going (to/on/out/off) nicely.
69) She has suffered (from/to/with/about) her heart attack.
70) The exchange rate of dollars is going (up/down/on/with) from 16,000 VND to 15,750 VND for one
US dollar.
71) We have lost touch (with/of/for/over) each other for a long time.
72) I must study hard to keep pace (with/of/for/to) my classmates.
73) The prices of petrol are going (up/down/on/out) from 52 US dollars to 54 US dollars for a barrel.
74) I usually regard him (with/in/as/at) my close friend.
75) Don’t make a fuss (over/on/at/of) such trifles.
76) The bomb has gone (out/off/over/with) in a crowded street.
77) Who will look (for/after/at/around) the child when you’re away?
78) Congratulate you (in/to/on/with) winning the game.
79) I feel very hot because the electricity has gone (off/out/along/after).
80) The plane crashed (into/on/in/with) the mountain.
81) I’ve lost my keys. Can you help me look (at/for/after/into) them?
82) The book is divided (to/in/into/for) three parts.
83) I wrote to the company asking them (to/for/about/with) more information about the job.
84) Many people regard him (as/to/in/of) one of the greatest pianists in the world.
85) Our teacher was very kind (of/to/for/with) us.
86) Her children are very quick (with/about/at/for) computer games.
87) This kind of music is popular (for/to/with/about) the young.
88) Boys are fond (in/of/on/at) playing football.
89) Last week the beach was overcrowded (of/over/with/for) people.
90) She’s very worried (for/with/at/about) her mother’s health.
91) Why are these two schools different (to/from/with/at) each other?
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92) Most children are ill-prepared (to/for/from/at) employment.
93) Four-fifths of the world’s computers use programs (at/in/on/about) English.
94) Attending all the lectures is important (to/with/at/in) us.
95) English belongs (from/to/on/in) those who use it.
96) Clean air provides us (for/at/with/about) a healthy supply of oxygen.
97) My brother is very interested (in/at/on/about) chess but he is not good at it.
98) I don’t think he was present (in/at/on/of) the meeting yesterday.
99) Are you serious (for/about/with/over) learning to be an architect?
100) She has become very famous (for/at/on/with) her novels.
101) Mary always take good care (for/of/to/with) her children.
102) Henry was born (on/in/at/to) 1992.
103) Lisa is very good (at/with/in/about) chemistry.
104) The forest fire went (after/off/out/along) after two days.
105) I always find it hard to keep pace (up/with/for/on) Nam, one of the best students in my class.
106) What do you often do (in/on/at/of) the evening?
107) Smoking is not good (for/at/about/of) our health.
108) The interview was broadcast (on/in/at/for) radio and television.
109) That farmer succeeded (on/in/at/with) raising fish.
110) Clean air is necessary (with/for/about/of) our health.
111) The future of a country depends (in/at/on/from) the youth.
112) There is a great difference (from/between/about/for) these two things.
113) My father is used (to/on/in/at) living in the countryside.
114) My father isn’t pleased (for/about/with/from) my work.
115) Many people are involved (on/in/of/at) the use of English.
116) English provides ready access (with/to/for/of) the world scholarship.
117) She is always fed up (at/with/for/about) washing dishes after dinner.
118) The roofs are covered (with/about/by/for) red tiles.
119) My father insisted (in/on/of/at) building a new house.
120) We are looking forward (in/at/for/to) seeing you again.
KEY
1. to
2. for