Luận văn the effects of using games on efl students' speaking performances in the classroom

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ABSTRACT
This research is conducted to investigate the effects of using games on EFL
students‟ speaking performances and attitudes towards using games on the
speaking classes.
This study investigated the effects of using games on EFL students‟ speaking
performances. The participants were 74 non-English major students at Tra Vinh
University. The data were analyzed using basic and inferential statistical methods
including mean scores, standard deviations, paired sample t-test and t- sample test.
The data of this study were qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative data were
obtained by interviewing the students and field notes after the intervention by
using games. The quantitative data were in the form of questionnaire. Meanwhile,
the quantitative data were collected by assessing the students‟ speaking
performances through the pre-test and post-test. Therefore, the quantitative data
were in the form of students‟ speaking scores in the pre-test and post-test.
The findings revealed that students had significantly improved in speaking
skills. Moreover, they tended to have more positive attitudes towards learning
English through games. Regarding the results, it can be recommended that using
games in teaching English is beneficial to EFL students‟ and engage students in
learning English.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION ..................................................................................................... i
ACKNOWELEDGEMENT ................................................................................... ii
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... iii
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................. vi
LIST OF FIGURE ................................................................................................ vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................... 1
1.1. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY ................................................................... 1
1.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS ............................................................................ 3
1.3. RESEARCH AIMS ....................................................................................... 3
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS ........................................................................... 3
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY .............................................................. 3
1.6. THE STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY ......................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................. 5
2.1. THEORETICAL REVIEW ........................................................................... 5
2.1.1. Speaking ................................................................................................... 5
2.1.1.1. Definition of Speaking ........................................................................ 5
2.1.1.2. Teaching Speaking .............................................................................. 5
2.1.1.3. Speaking Teaching Techniques .......................................................... 6
2.1.1.4. Speaking Accuracy and Speaking Fluency......................................... 8
2.1.1.5. Types of Classroom Speaking Performance ....................................... 8
2.1.2. Application of games in the EFL classroom ............................................ 9
2.1.2.1. Definition of Games............................................................................ 9
2.1.2.2. Type of Games .................................................................................. 10
2.1.2.3. The Advantages of Games ................................................................ 11
2.2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................... 12
2.3. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES .......................................................... 13
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................ 17
3.1. RESEARCH CONTEXT ............................................................................ 17
3.1.1. Research context .................................................................................... 17
3.1.2. Participants ............................................................................................. 17
3.2. RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................ 18
3.3. PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY ................................................................ 20
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3.3.1. Pre- training phase ................................................................................. 20
3.3.2. While- training phase ............................................................................ 23
3.3.3. Post- training phase ................................................................................ 23
3.4. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS ................................................................... 24
3.4.1. Interview ................................................................................................ 24
3.4.3. Test (pre-test and post- test) ................................................................... 25
3.4.4. Field notes .............................................................................................. 26
3.5. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS ................................................. 26
3.5.1. Procedures of collecting data from the semi- structured interview ....... 26
3.5.2. Procedures of collecting data from the questionnaire ............................ 27
3.5.3. Pre- and Post- test data collection .......................................................... 27
3.5.4. Field notes .............................................................................................. 28
3.6. VALIDITY .................................................................................................. 28
CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSISIONS .............................................. 29
4.1. RESULTS FROM PRE AND POST- TEST .............................................. 29
4.1.1. Students‟ proficiency level .................................................................... 29
4.1.2. Pre- and post- test of Control group ....................................................... 30
4.1.3. Pre- and post- test of Experimental group ............................................. 31
4.2. RESULTS FROM QUESTIONNAIRE ...................................................... 35
4.3. RESULTS FROM INTERVIEW ................................................................ 39
4.4. RESULTS FROM FIELD NOTES ............................................................. 43
4.5. DISCUSSION ............................................................................................. 44
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION .................................... 46
5.1. CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................... 46
5.2. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY ............................................................. 47
5.3. RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ........................ 47
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 49
APPENCIES
APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX 2 LESSON PLANS
APPENDIX 3 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 The three stages of presentation, practice, and production of Control group
and Experimental group...................................................................................23
Table 3.2 Criteria of assessment of speaking test........................................................24
Table 3.3 The Preliminary English Speaking test examination of
speaking................................................................................................................24
Table 3.4 Research instrument......................................................................................25
Table 4.1 Summary of pre- test results of the Experimental (EG) and the Control
groups (CG)........................................................................................................30
Table 4.2 Indepentdent samples t-test of the Experimental and the Control group in the
speaking performance test prior to experimentation…………………..………31
Table 4.3 Summary of pre- and post- test results of Control group..............................32
Table 4.4 Paired samples t-test of Control groups in the speaking performance
test.......................................................................................................................32
Table 4.5 Summary of pre- and post test results of Experimental group………..……32
Table 4.6 Paired samples t-test of Experimental group in the speaking performance
test.........................................................................................................................33
Table 4.7 Summary of post- test results........................................................................33
Table 4.8 Independent t- test of Control and Experimental group in the speaking
performance test....................................................................................................34
Table 4.9 Effects of using games on students‟ speaking performances toward lesson
plan content .......................................................................................................36
Table 4.10 Students‟ attitudes towards task design......................................................37
Table 4.11 Students‟ attitudes towards effects of instruction.......................................38
Table 4.12 Summary of situation before and after intervention...................................45
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LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework of using games in the
classroom..............................................................................................................14
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides an overview of the current study with rationale and
research questions. Significance and the structure of the study are mentioned in this
section as well.
1.1. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
Teaching and learning English has been becoming extremely popular in Vietnam
today. Particularly, it is included in the curriculum of almost every school and
university. Unfortunately, the interest of students who are not majored in this subject is
not the same as how well they understand it‟s vital. Students seem reluctant to learn
English as a compulsory discipline in their colleges. Students just want to pass the
final examination with high score, without considering the speaking ability. There still
exist many difficulties in learning English in general and at Tra Vinh University in
particular. These are some problems in teaching and learning speaking in classes.
However, learning how to improve speaking performance of EFL students is a
problem for many learners of English, especially for non- English majors at Tra Vinh
University.
Tuan and Mai (2015) conducted a study dealing with factors affecting students
speaking performance at Le Thanh Hien High School in Vietnam. Their results
revealed that the students speak very little. They cannot think of anything to say and
they use mother tongue instead of English when they discuss in groups or pairs: low
participation, lack of motivation to express themselves and they translate Vietnamese
before they speak. The students‟ difficulties occur when they speak English because of
their limitations in mastering the component of speaking. They rarely practice
speaking inside and outside the classroom. The researcher has found similar case with
Tuan and Mai‟s (2015) study; the researcher found that it was hard for the English
teacher to make an active speaking class. The students did not have courage to speak
English in class for many reasons such as fear of mistakes, lack of vocabulary and
confidence. Meanwhile students of non- English majors make contribution to speaking
learning problems. One of the main problems is the students‟ lack of awareness in
learning speaking. They do not realize the needs of English speaking in the real life.
They just learn English as their obligation since English becomes the final
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examination. Some students understand English grammar very well, and even score
high marks in examinations, but their communication skills are very poor and they are
often too shy to even attempt to strike up a conversation. English speaking ability is
one of the most important skills to be developed and enhanced in language learners,
particularly in an academic setting (Morozova, 2013).
Considering the role of speaking as one of the English language skills that non-
English majors have to learn, the researcher believes that an effort should be done to
help students improve speaking performance. Using games is one of the ways to
enhance student speaking performance. Game can be a solution as game is used for
giving intense and passionate involvement in communication to the students so that
they can feel enjoyment and pleasure in learning (Mahmoud & Tanni, 2014). Game
can be defined as an activity or a sport with rules in which people or teams compete
again each other card game, board games, a game of skill, ball game, such as football
tennis” (Hornby, 1995). For Uberman (1998), games can maintain students‟
motivation in vocabulary learning because they are funny and interesting.
According to Hadfield (2004), game is an activity with rules, a goal and an
element of fun. Based on the Hadfield‟s opinion, it can be concluded that games are
instruments that really can help students improve their speaking abilities. Games have
some specialties. Students can learn in a fun way by using games. Teachers can use
a wide variety of games. Games will stimulate and motivate them to practice their
English understanding through speaking. From those reasons, it is clear that games
can be used to improve the students‟ speaking performance.
Hopefully this study can help the teachers in teaching speaking to the students,
especially those who are in class non- English majors. Games could motivate the
students to speak and make them more confident in their speaking performances. This
implies that the English teacher should use media especially games to help the students
to perform their speaking performances.
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1.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Speaking skill is the most important skill among listening, reading and writing.
People have good speaking skills that help them to knowledge or people ability
valuated through communication (Ur, 1996). Davies and Pearse (1998) stated that the
major goal of all English language teaching should be to give learners the ability to use
English effectively, accurately in communication. However, some of language learners
studying English for many years cannot communicate fluently and accurately because
they lack necessary knowledge in general. Among for language skills (listening,
speaking, reading and writing), speaking is paid special attention. However, the
speaking lessons are usually not really successful as expected because students have a
lot of difficulties in learning speaking skill. Although students can do the grammar
exercises well, can master quite many new words and structures, they still can not
apply them in learning speaking skill.
Therefore, for the reasons mentioned above, the researcher conducted a research
on the effects of using games on students‟ speaking performances in the classroom to
help students overcome problems in learning speaking.
1.3. RESEARCH AIMS
This research is carried out to find out non- English majors students‟ learning
English speaking skill at Tra Vinh University from students and teachers‟s point of
views. Then, some solutions will be generated from the teachers to overcome the
problems and provide some suggestions, implications for the improvement of
speaking teaching by using games.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Are there any effects of using games on students‟ speaking performances?
2. What are the students‟ attitudes towards using games in the speaking classes?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be conducted for several expected outcomes. For the theoretical,
the study supplies the English language teachers with the understanding of speaking
skill and games in terms of types, advantages when employing them. In order to
enhance students to speak in the classroom, teachers should choose an appropriate
strategy in their teaching. In this research, the importance of using games as a strategy
in the classroom that helps students to overcome their difficulties in speaking English.
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Particularly, for the practical significance, the research provides the language teachers
and learners with a variety of games used in all stages in speaking classes based on
Objectives PET book (Louise, Barbara & Thomas, 2010).
1.6. THE STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY
This study consists of five chapters, in which chapter one presents the rationale,
research questions and hypotheses. It also comprises significance and the structure of
the study. Chapter two reviews are theoretical background necessary for conducting
the research. There are two parts in this chapter; the first part states the definition of
terminologies used in the study and the second one present some conceptual
framework of the study. Chapter three presents the whole picture of research
methodology. The researcher explains the reason for choosing Classroom Action
Research (Kemmis and Mc Taggart, 1988) as well as discusses the important stages to
do this study. Chapter four indicates the findings and discussion and then chapter five
presents the conclusion, implication of the study and suggestions for further study.
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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. THEORETICAL REVIEW
This chapter presents the theoretical background of the current study, which
comprises two main parts: the first part examines operational definitions of key terms
used in the study and the second part provides the summaries of the studies which are
relevant to the effects of using game on student‟s speaking performance.
2.1.1. Speaking
2.1.1.1. Definition of Speaking
Speaking is an essential tool for communicating, thinking and learning. Through
speaking, students learn concepts, develop vocabulary and perceive the structure of the
English language which is the essential components of learning. Additionally,
speaking is a vehicle to link individuals to society. When students talk about their
ideas, they clarify their thinking. They can figure out what they believe and where they
stand on issues. According to Maybin et al. (1992) says that communication is an
exchange between people, knowledge, information, ideas, options, feeling so there
must be concept, ideas, in the fellow speaker of what they are going to say. The
speakers have a basic competence in communication their ideas. In addition, according
to Hybel (2001), speaking is any process in which people share information, ideas and
feeling; it involves all of body language mannerism and style-anything that adds
meaning to a massage.
From the definition above, speaking is a form to say or talk something with
expressing on of ideas, opinions, views and description to others for getting response,
or a way of conveying message in order to make understanding of wishes to others and
to contribute to others. To do speaking activities, both the speaker and the listener or
only speaker are involved.
2.1.1.2. Teaching Speaking
According to Harmer (2007), there are three main reasons for getting students to
speak in the classroom. Firstly, speaking activities provide rehearsal opportunities to
practice real-life speaking in the safety of the classroom. Secondly, speaking tasks in
which students try to use any or of the language they know provide feedback for both
teacher and students. Everyone can see how well they are doing: both how successful
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they are and what language problems they are experiencing. Finally, the more students
have opportunities to use active the various elements of language they have stored in
their brains, the more automatic their use of these elements become. This means that
they will be able to use words and phrases fluently without very much conscious
thought.
According to Rivers (1981), teaching speaking needs two processes. They are
forging an instrument and giving the students practice in its use. Further, he explains
that in the first level of activity, the forging of the instrument, the aim of the teacher is
to present students with a functioning language system which becomes more and more
sophisticated in its operation, and to give students well-designed practice, so that when
they wish to express something in the new language the can concentrate on what they
want to say rather than on the details of how to say it acceptably. At this level of
activity, the students are required to do much practice in the obligatory associations of
the new language lexical item, morphological and syntactical patterns and sentence
type. While in the second level of the activity, such practice can be built into a
competitive activity or a game and students will repeat the activity a number of times
much more willingly.
2.1.1.3. Speaking Teaching Techniques
According to Harmer (2007) the aim of teaching speaking is to train students for
communication. To do that, the teacher should be able to develop activities which
promote students to use language in real communication. Moreover, Wenxia (2008)
says that the teacher should think, when teaching, not only about presenting language
in a certain situation, but also as a communicative act. There are some techniques to
teach speaking according to Nunan (2003:271)
Firstly, information gap task is a technique in language teaching where students
have missing information necessary to complete a task or solve a problem and must
communicate with their classmates to fill in the gaps. It is often used
in communicative language teaching and task-based language learning. Information
gap tasks are contrasted with opinion gap tasks, in which all information is shared at
the start of the activity, and learners give their own opinions on the information given.
Secondly, Jigsaw activities are a specific type of information gap activity that is
particularly good for learners if English as an additional language because they
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