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UPPSALA STUDIES IN
ECONOMIC HISTORY 62
________________________________________________________________
Annette H. K. Son
Social Policy and Health
Insurance in South Korea
and Taiwan
A Comparative Historical Approach
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS UPSALIENSIS
2
Social Policy and Health Insurance in
South Korea and Taiwan
A Comparative Historical Approach
Annette H. K. Son
3
Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economic History
presented at Uppsala University in 2003
ABSTRACT
Son, Annette H. K. 2002. Social Policy and Health Insurance in South Korea
and Taiwan – A Comparative Historical Approach. Acta Universitatis
Upsaliensis. Uppsala Studies in Economic History 62. 171 pp. Uppsala.
ISBN 91-554-5489-5.
This dissertation deals with a comparison of social policy in South Korea and Tai-
wan. By tracing the historical origins of the modern social security institutions, as
well as the historical process of modernization of medical care in Korea and Taiwan,
this study can identify the extension of entitlement to health insurance as one of the
most contentious social policy issues in the two countries.
Using a historical institutional approach, this study shows that, in both Korea and
Taiwan, the direct presidential elections as well as the diffusion of international
norms have been two important factors affecting the historical process of the exten-
sion of entitlement to health insurance.
The significance of the direct presidential election factor should be understood in
the light of the distinctive political culture in Korea and Taiwan, where the political
decision-making has been highly concentrated around the major political leaders and
their personalities have assumed a prominent role in sociopolitical development. The
significance of international norms should be understood with regard to the particu-
lar status of the two states, Korea and Taiwan. Both Korea and Taiwan belong to the
states that have sought to build up their respective nations to be comparable to the
industrially advanced countries in West during the post World War II era. In more
recent years, this has been attempted through the development of social policy pro-
grams, even if many areas still need improvement.
Key words: social policy, health insurance, South Korea, Taiwan, social security
institutions, state, regulator, entitlement to statutory health insurance, direct presi-
dential elections, international norms
Annette H. K. Son, Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Box 513,
SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
 Annette H. K. Son 2002
ISSN 0346-6493
ISBN 91-554-5489-5
Printed in Sweden by Elanders Gotab, Stockholm 2002
Distributor: Uppsala University Library, Box 510, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
4
Contents
I. Introductory essay
II. Mutual aid in the welfare system in the Republic of Korea (published in
Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 5, No. 2. 1996, pp. 97-105)
III. Modernization of medical care in Korea (1876-1990) (Published in
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 49. No. 4. 1999, pp. 543-550)
IV. The construction of medical insurance system in the Republic of Korea,
1963-1989 (Published in International Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 10.
No. 1. 1998, pp. 45-53)
V. Taiwan’s path to national health insurance (1950-1995) (Published in
International Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 10. No. 1. 2001, pp. 45-53)
VI. Social Insurance Programs in South Korea and Taiwan – A Historical
Overview (Uppsala Papers in Economic History, Research Report No. 50.
2002)
VII. The Extension of Entitlement to Health Insurance in South Korea and
Taiwan : A Historical Institutional Approach (accepted for publication in
Economic and Industrial Democracy)
5
6
Acknowledgements
This dissertation could not have been completed without support, encour-
agement and guidance of teachers, colleagues, friends and family. I am par-
ticularly grateful to:
Associate Professor Paulina de los Reyes, thesis advisor during the later
stage of my dissertation work, for her critical comments on the numerous
versions of my thesis draft.
Professor Maths Isacson, Professor Lars Magnusson, Professor Kersti
Ullenhag, Associate Professor Jan Ottosson, Associate Professor Mats Mo-
rell, and my colleagues Jenny Andersson, Ph. D. Erik Lindberg, Sofia Mur-
hem, Johan Samuelsson for their valuable comments on the final draft of my
thesis.
Dr. Lars Hassbring, thesis advisor during the early stage of my disserta-
tion work, for his recommendation to take doctoral courses at the Depart-
ment of Economic History, Uppsala University in the fall of 1995 as well as
for his encouragement and wisdom during the earlier stage of my disserta-
tion work.
Professor Lena Sommestad for her critical and supportive reading of the-
sis drafts during the earlier stage of my dissertation work.
Professor Ulla Wikander at Stockholm University for her recommenda-
tion to commence doctoral studies at the Department of Economic History,
Uppsala University in the summer of 1996.
Dr. Maurits Nyström and Associate Professor Klas Nyberg for awaking
my interest in the subject of economic history during my supplementary
course work in the spring of 1996.
Professor Johan Söderberg at the Department of Economic History,
Stockholm University for allowing me to take two courses there, which
saved me much needed time.
Dr. Susanna Hedenborg for supportive reading of several versions of the
thesis draft as well as for the pleasant conversations on the commuter train
between Stockholm and Uppsala.
Professor Sven Hort at the Södertörn University College for his encour-
agement and kindness during my first year as a foreign student at the Inter-
national Graduate School, Stockholm University in 1993.
Professor Tung-Liang Chiang at the Institute of Health Policy and Man-
agement of National Taiwan University for taking his valuable time to pro-
7
vide me an invaluable information on the development of the Taiwan Na-
tional Health Insurance Plan in the Summer of 1998.
Ms. Yen-Hsiu Liu and Mr. Mao-Ting Sheen at the Taiwan Bureau of Na-
tional Health Insurance, as well as Mr. Derg-Ming Pern at the Taiwan Bu-
reau of Labor Insurance for providing me with valuable research material in
the Summer of 1998.
Professor Torbjörn Lodén at the Center for Pacific Asia Studies, Stock-
holm University for his generosity in providing me with a research grant for
a field research trip to Korea and Taiwan in early 2000.
Professor Dung-sheng Chen and Associate Professor Lih-Rong Wang at
the Department and Graduate Institute of National Taiwan University for
their hospitality and guidance during my field research trip in the Summer of
2000.
Professor James C. Y. Chu, Mr. Charles Wen-chi Lee and Mr. Wei-kuang
Hao at Taipei Mission in Sweden for their assistance with my two times field
research trip to Taiwan in the Summer of 1998 and in the Summer of 2000.
Ms. Lynn Karlsson for her assistance with English language review and
effective editorial work and Ms. Birgitta Ferm for her assistance with all
practical matters.
Mr. Boris I. Berglund, the president of the Swedish-Korean Society
(founded 1951), for his generosity in allowing me to use the Society’s li-
brary.
Dr. Åke J. Ek, the president of the Association of the Swedish Field Hos-
pital for Korea, for his unfailing support and encouragement.
Assistant Professor Ching-Li Yang at Nan Hua University, Taiwan and
my former colleague Ms. Cheong-Mi Lim and my sister Mi-Kyung Son for
sending me research material in the original languages.
My former colleague Ms. Hi-Kyung Cho for informing me from time to
time on what is going on in Korea which has helped me not to lose the ever-
changing reality in Korea even though I am far away from Korea.
My family and friends in both Korea and Sweden for their moral support
and encouragement.
This dissertation is dedicated to them.
Stockholm, December 2002
Annette Hye Kyung Son
8
Contents
Research Problem .........................................................................................11
The objective of this dissertation ..................................................................15
The structure of this introductory essay........................................................16
Theoretical frameworks ................................................................................16
Welfare mix or welfare society .............................................................16
Modernization........................................................................................17
Approaches to social Policy...................................................................17
Historical institutional approach..........................................................20
Conceptual premises - Health insurance, sickness insurance, and
medical insurance .........................................................................................22
Methods - a comparative historical approach, combined with the case
study method.................................................................................................23
Sources of data..............................................................................................24
The Articles ..................................................................................................26
Concluding remarks......................................................................................32
Appendix 1. Map over Korea and Taiwan with their neighboring
countries........................................................................................................36
Appendix 2. List of some previous comparative social policy studies
concerning Korea and Taiwan ......................................................................37
Appendix 3. List of some previous case studies of Korean social policy.....42
Appendix 4. List of some previous case studies of Taiwanese social
policy ............................................................................................................44
References.....................................................................................................46
9
10
“There are differences between countries in the
way in which social policy interventions are in-
1
terpreted and understood.”
“Social policy, social welfare or social security
cannot be regarded as carrying any universal
connotation; different terms, with underlying
conceptual and administrative differences, pre-
2
vail in different countries.”
Research Problem
This dissertation is concerned with the social policy of the Republic of
Korea (ROK; South Korea, hereafter Korea) and the Republic of China on
Taiwan (ROC on Taiwan, hereafter Taiwan). Using a historical comparative
approach it demonstrates that there are not only differences in understanding
and interpreting social policy interventions in the different countries, but
there are also different factors affecting social policy development in the
different countries.
Since the mid-1980s, a host of social policy studies, dealing with the East
Asian countries either as a cluster or as an individual unit, have been carried
3
out. These studies are informative and illuminating on a descriptive level.
This is because they highlight some characteristics of social policy in East
4
Asian countries that are different from those of West European countries.
According to these studies, social policy in East Asian countries is charac-
terized by relatively low government social expenditure and comparatively
limited social policy programs for meeting citizens’ welfare needs.
There are two alleged reasons for these findings. One reason is that, as
Kwon has argued, the government plays the role of regulator in East Asian
welfare states, while in West European welfare states the government plays
the role of financier, in some cases combined with the role of direct pro-
1
Freeman (1999), p. 52.
2
Kennett and Yeates (2001), p. 60.
3
See appendices 2, 3 and 4 for my review of prior research.
4
In terms of geography, East Asia is comprised of Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia. North-
east Asia includes China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and possibly Hong Kong if it is counted as
an independent unit, while Southeast Asia includes Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singa-
pore, Thailand, and Vietnam (see appendix 1). However, in the context of social policy stud-
ies, East Asia is often represented by Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan which
share a common Confucian heritage as well as a historical experience of rapid economic
growth during the post World War II period.
11
5
vider. The other reason is that the social policy programs in East Asian wel-
6
fare states are still in the process of development.
The previous studies are however problematic both empirically and
methodologically. Empirically, they often describe a broad range of social
policy programs without clearly explaining their reasons for the inclusion or
exclusion of certain social policy programs in different countries. By doing
so, they tend to miss national variations in the development of social policy
7
programs among East Asian countries. As some researchers have pointed
out, the differences among East Asian countries today with respect to values,
economic development and political circumstances are in general greater
than among contemporary West European countries. They have further con-
tended that the differences among East Asian countries become more obvi-
ous when one considers the combination of varying levels of economic and
8
political development in those countries.
Earlier comparative studies show a tendency to overlook national varia-
tions in social policy programs among East Asian countries. Moreover, they
do not provide any clear reasoning behind the selection of countries included
9
in their respective studies. The reason for selecting countries for inclusion in
each study has not been based on any clear comparative strategy. Instead, the
selection has often been based on geographical convenience or Western con-
cern with the economic impact of East Asian social policies on the economic
development of West European countries.
As already noted, the previous studies generally agree on many common
aspects regarding East Asian welfare states. However, they are in disagree-
ments as to the logic of social policy development in East Asian countries,
which has led them to suggest a variety of explanations for the development.
10
Among the suggested explanations are the logic of industrialism, the logic
11 12
of Confucianism, the logic of learning and adaptation, the logic of political
13 14
legitimacy, and the logic of vulnerability.
To be sure, all existing explanations help to demonstrate the commonal-
ities among the East Asian welfare states as well as the differences between
the East Asian countries and the West European countries. The problem is,
5
Kwon, H-j. (1997).
6
Lee (1999); Jacobs (2000); Gough (2001); Kwon, H-j. (2001); Kwon, S. (2001).
7
Two exceptions to this general trend are the work by Goodman, White and Kwon, H-j.
(1998) and the article by Holliday (2000).
8
Andersson (1998), p.4; Berger (1997), pp. 275-279.
9
Two exceptions to this general trend are found in Jones’ study (1993), p. 199 and Goodman
and Peng’s study (1996), pp. 194-198.
10
Deyo (1992); Hort and Kuhnle (2000).
11
Jones (1990 and 1993); Rieger and Leibfried (2001).
12
Goodman and Peng (1996).
13
Goodman, White and Kwon, H-j. (1998); Kwon, H-j. (1998 and 1999).
14
Holliday (2000).
12
however, that they provide little insight into the historical dynamics of social
policy development in the East Asian countries.
The logic of industrialism may have a certain relevance in the sense that
East Asian countries have developed a number of social policy programs that
are intended to protect the wage-earning population during industrialization.
However, it can hardly offer a satisfactory explanation for the national
variations in the development of social policy programs that are intended to
protect the non-wage-earning population. The logic of Confucianism, even if
we accept the ambiguity of the concept itself, cannot answer fully why East
Asian countries that belong to the same Confucian cultural sphere have
15
given priority to different social policy programs.
As for the next two explanations, i.e. the logic of learning and adaptation
and the logic of political legitimacy, they may be broadly pertinent to social
policies in all modern capitalist countries, but they are certainly not distinc-
16
tive to the East Asian welfare states, as Holliday has contended. Lastly, the
logic of vulnerability, understood as a combined effect of international mar-
ket pressure and hostile neighbors, also loses its explanatory power, because
those two factors have more or less remained constant for East Asian coun-
tries during the period this study concerns, while social policy has changed.
In short, these previous explanations on social policy development in
East Asian countries are too general to provide sufficient insight into the
historical dynamics of the development of social policy programs in those
countries.
There are a number of social policy studies concerning Korea and Tai-
17
wan, in the form of case studies. These prior works have four characteristics
in common.
Firstly, following the established norm of Western social policy studies,
they tend to describe a variety of modern social security institutions stem-
ming from the state, while paying scant attention to the traditional social
security institutions such as the mutual aid system. This is problematic be-
cause it does not adequately capture the comprehensive picture of how citi-
zens’ welfare needs have been met during the development of modern social
security institutions. The structure and function of traditional social security
institutions are also important for understanding the origin of the institu-
tional characteristics of the modern social security institutions in Korea and
Taiwan.
15
An indication that the different East Asian countries have given priority to different social
policy programs is found in the work by Goodman, R., White, G. and Kwon, H-j. (1998). See
for example Berger (1997, pp. 265-266) for the varying use of Confucianism in explaining the
different phenomena that have taken place in East Asia.
16
Holliday (2000), p. 716.
17
See appendices 3 and 4.
13
Secondly, the previous works lack any account of the relationship be-
tween the expansion of health insurance programs and the expansion of
modern health care resources in Korea and Taiwan. As Ito’s comparative
study of the variations in the development of health insurance programs be-
tween Denmark and Sweden has shown, the population coverage of health
insurance is to a great extent related to the availability of modern health care
18
resources in a country. In the cases of Korea and Taiwan, the growth of
modern health care resources is expressed as the modernization of the health
care systems in these two countries. It is therefore important to study how
the modernization of the health care systems has proceeded in these two
countries if we are to better comprehend and interpret the social policy inter-
ventions in the two countries under study.
Thirdly, in measuring the level of government social welfare efforts, ear-
lier studies often employ the established concept of government social ex-
19
penditure. This is problematic because, as mentioned earlier, East Asian
governments more often play the role of regulator than the role of direct
20
fiscal provider, as West European governments do. The focus of attention
should be laid also on when and how the state exercises its regulatory role in
different social policy programs.
Fourthly and lastly, earlier studies tend to compare social policy provi-
sions in contemporary East Asian countries with those in contemporary West
European countries. This is problematic because, as Freeman has contended,
the interpretation and understanding of social policy interventions often vary
21
from society to society. This comparison of different social policy provi-
sions without reflecting over the varying significance and implication of
those provisions in different societies is a hindrance to a clear understanding
of the driving force for the social policy development in Korea and Taiwan.
The present work differs from the previous social policy studies of East
Asian countries in four major respects. Firstly, it focuses on two countries,
Korea and Taiwan, which share a number of commonalities. It is hoped that
the limitation of the number of countries studied will allow this dissertation
to concentrate on the factors that illustrate sources of national variation on a
22
common policy issue.
Secondly, this dissertation is devoted to describing the structure and
function of the traditional social security institutions in order to show the
way citizens’ welfare needs have been met while the modern social security
18
Ito (1980). According to him, two other contributing factors for the expansion of health
insurance programs are the state subsidy to health insurance funds as well as the activeness of
health insurance funds.
19
See for example Ramesh (1995a) and Lin (1991).
20
Kwon, H-j. (1998).
21
Freeman (1999), p. 52.
22
Mabbett and Boldersen (1999), p. 55.
14
institutions such as social insurance programs have been in the process of
development in these two countries.
Thirdly, this dissertation explores the historical origin of the modern
health care system in order to better understand and interpret social policy
intervention in the two countries.
Fourthly and lastly, it focuses on the extension of entitlement to statutory
health insurance, one of the most contentious social policy provisions in both
countries. This approach might be fruitful in illuminating some explanatory
factors of the social policy development in Korea and Taiwan.
The objective of this dissertation
The overriding objective of this dissertation is to analyse the explanatory
factors for social policy development in Korea and Taiwan. In doing so, this
dissertation sets out to address the following specific issues:
1) to describe the structure and function of traditional social security institu-
tions, exemplified by the mutual aid system in Korea and Taiwan, while the
modern social security institutions have been in the process of development,
and further, to explore the implications of traditional social security institu-
tions for the evolution of the modern social security institutions in both
countries.
2) to describe the modernization of medical care in Korea and Taiwan and to
discuss the significance of entitlement to statutory health insurance in the
context of Korea and Taiwan.
3) to explore the modern social security institutions, represented by the
health insurance programs in Korea and Taiwan.
4) to elucidate factors influencing the historical process of social policy de-
velopment in Korea and Taiwan that have been overlooked in the earlier
studies of social policy in the two countries.
The present dissertation consists of six separate studies in order to deal with
the research issues posed above. More specifically, Son (1996) attempts to
provide a complementary picture on how the welfare needs of citizens have
been met in the two countries under study, while Son (1999a) deals with the
modernization of medical care in Korea. Son (2002a) provides some back-
ground information on Korea and Taiwan for a comparative study of social
policy in both countries. Son (1998) and Son (2001) attempt to explore the
development of health insurance in Korea and Taiwan respectively. These
two studies should be seen as a first step toward a comparative study of the
extension of entitlement to health insurance in Korea and Taiwan. Finally,
Son (2002b) attempts to elucidate some institutional factors influencing so-
15
cial policy development in Korea and Taiwan that have been overlooked in
the earlier studies of social policy in the two countries.
The structure of this introductory essay
The structure of this introductory essay is as follows. The next two sections
outline the theoretical frameworks and conceptual premises for this disserta-
tion. They are followed by a presentation of the methods for this study. Next
the sources utilized in this dissertation are presented. This is followed by a
summary of major findings from the six studies included in this thesis. This
introductory essay closes with a discussion of the theoretical, methodologi-
cal and empirical implications of the dissertation.
Theoretical frameworks
As indicated earlier, this dissertation addresses a number of empirical issues
in its attempt to elucidate the factors influencing social policy development
in Korea and Taiwan. Different issues are grounded in different theoretical
frameworks. Rose’s theory of welfare mix or welfare society is employed in
order to fully capture the comprehensive picture of how citizens’ welfare
needs are met. The theory of modernization is employed in order to address
the issue of the modernization of medical care in Korea and Taiwan. For the
historical development of health insurance in Korea and Taiwan, four differ-
ent approaches to social policy are employed. The theory of historical insti-
tutionalism is employed in order to account for the factors influencing the
historical process of social policy development in Korea and Taiwan.
Welfare mix or welfare society
Son (1996) applies Rose’s theory of welfare mix or welfare society as a pri-
mary theoretical framework. His theory assumes that there are many differ-
ent ways of achieving welfare in a society and that the total welfare in a so-
ciety could be a mix of public (state) and private (market, family and other
social systems) welfare. The mix of public and private welfare varies from
23
society to society. This theory has been proposed as a reaction to the rigid
practice of the established Western social welfare studies that focus exclu-
sively on welfare provided through modern statutory social security institu-
tions. One of the important merits of Rose’s theory of welfare mix is that it
allows one to be attentive to welfare provided through traditional social se-
23
Rose (1986); see also Rodgers (2000).
16
curity institutions, such as the mutual aid system in Korea, and its role in
modern Korean society.
Modernization
Son (1999) deals with the modernization of medical care in Korea. As is
well known, the term “modernization” is a concept that encompasses a wide
24
range of phenomena. In the context of this specific study, modernization
signifies the transformation of social practices, which range from those that
are indigenous and traditional, to those that originated from Western indus-
trialized countries in the context of the non-Western countries. With specific
regard to medical care, the modernization approach holds that as societies
modernize, traditional medical practitioners are replaced by modern West-
ern-trained medical practitioners within the state medical care system, which
eventually results in the disappearance of traditional medical practitioners
25
from the state medical care system. Korea today, however, has a dual state
medical care system in which both traditional medical practitioners and
26
Western-trained medical practitioners coexist. This study is therefore con-
cerned with a wide range of measures taken by traditional medical practitio-
ners in their attempt to preserve their profession in the course of modern
Korean history (1876-1990). Examples of their actions include: the issuance
of medical journals, the establishment of medical education facilities, active
political lobbying for the preservation of traditional medical practitioners as
a separate profession, the establishment of a professional association, the
establishment of a traditional medical education curriculum comparable to
modern Western medical education curricula, and the utilization of modern
medical equipment in exercising traditional medical practice.
Approaches to social policy
Son (1998 & 2001) deal with the development of social policy with a focus
on the development of statutory health insurance systems in Korea and Tai-
wan respectively.
As noted earlier, the previous social policy research dealing with East
Asian countries has suggested a variety of explanations for social policy
development in Korea and Taiwan. This indicates that social policy in gen-
eral and the extension of entitlement to statutory health insurance in particu-
lar in developing countries are outcomes of complex processes in which
24
See for example Levy (1966); Black (1966); Eisenstadt (1966); Myrdal (1968); Bendix
(1970); Inkeles and Smith (1974); Hoogvelt (1976); Harvey (1989).
25
Berg (1980).
26
In fact, the dualism of traditional and modern sectors is observable in many developing
countries. See among others Estibill (1994), pp. 23-26.
17
socio-economic and political factors, both at the national and international
level, exert varying influences. Moreover, the socio-economic and political
factors are constantly changing, especially in the context of developing
countries like Korea and Taiwan. For the sake of brevity, approaches to so-
cial policy in general and statutory health insurance policy in particular can
be grouped according to their varying focuses: a socio-economic approach, a
political approach, a state-centered approach and finally a transnational ap-
proach. In the following, the main points of these four different approaches
are presented.
Socio-economic approach
The socio-economic approach lays emphasis on the socio-economic trans-
formation following the industrialization of a society. It is founded on the
belief that as societies industrialize, they encounter common social “needs”
and “risks” which are addressed by governments in broadly similar ways.
Put in another way, this approach assumes that there is a close connection
between the industrialization of a society and the development of social pol-
27
icy programs. There are several socio-economic factors that are conducive
to the extension of entitlement to statutory health insurance. Specifically, the
growth of GNP per capita, the changes in occupational structure, the ageing
of the population and increases in health care resources combined with ad-
vancement in medical technology are mentioned as important socio-
economic factors that are conducive to the evolution of social policy.
Political approach
The main thrust of the political approach is that democratic competition is
conducive to the evolution of statutory health insurance policy. It is founded
on the belief that the more intensive the electoral competition, the more
likely that political elites extend social insurance coverage to a wider seg-
28
ment of the population in order to attract their votes.
A second way politics matters for social policy is through non-electoral
politics, such as social movements and protest in the absence of receptive
electoral politics. Piven and Cloward claim that popular protest movements
29
during political and economic crises have led to gains in social policies.
27
Rimlinger (1971); Wilensky (1975); Flora and Alber (1981); Polanyi (1968).
28
Pampel and Williamsson (1985); Ramesh (1995b).
29
Piven and Cloward (1993).
18
State-centered approach
The state-centered approach stresses the independent causal influence of the
state on social policy. State-centered analysis asserts that state actions cannot
be reduced to societal characteristics or events. The state is neither a tool
used by social groups to achieve their ends nor a reflection of external social
forces. State capacities or state autonomy are considered to be conducive to
30
the expansion of social policy.
Trans-national approach
In contrast to the explanations emphasizing internal factors discussed so far,
the transnational approach emphasizes external forces for explaining social
policies. Although the impact of transnational factors on national social pol-
icy are, as Mishra argues, open-ended, multifaceted and interrelated, one can
discern two different perspectives regarding transnational factors. One lays
emphasis on the impact of economic globalization, which is understood as
the openness of national economies with respect to trade and financial
31
flows. The other lays emphasis on the impact of social globalization, which
is understood as the influence of international social organizations on do-
32
mestic social policy formation.
With regard to the development of health insurance, this approach par-
ticularly pays attention to the importance of ideological or cultural transmis-
sion from international social organizations such as the International Labor
Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Supporters
of this line of argument maintain that the important features of globalization
are not limited to economic linkages. Certain values and beliefs become
institutionalized in the global arena and give rise to international norms.
These “norm-like” forces affect nation-states as sub-units of the global sys-
tem, stimulating the different national governments to improve social condi-
tions. As some researchers have pointed out, governments of developing
countries tend to believe that to comply with the world norms might confer
them a more favorable international image in world politics, which they in
turn employ as an important strategy for improving their political legitimacy
33
in domestic politics.
As revealed above, all four approaches lay emphasis on a specific aspect
of social policy while disregarding other aspects. Taking the complex nature
30
Orloff and Skocpol (1984); Evans, Reuschemeyer and Skocpol (1985); Skocpol (1985);
Amsden (1985); Wade (1988); Amsden (1989); Wade (1990); Petras and Hui (1991); Kim
(1997).
31
Wallerstein (1974); Wallerstein (1986); Clark and Flinson (1991); Deacon, Hulse and
Stubbs (1997); Midgley (1997); Mishra (1999); Kennett (2001).
32
Strang and Chang (1993); Kennett (2001).
33
Strang and Chang (1993); Tang (1997), p. 71; Meyer (1987).
19
of social policies in general and the extension of entitlement to statutory
health insurance in developing countries in particular into consideration, in
Son (1998) and Son (2001), the intention is not to test or to confirm any of
the four different approaches outlined above, but to describe and to under-
stand the phenomenon under study, i.e. the historical development of statu-
tory health insurance in these two countries. For this reason, the four differ-
ent theoretical approaches help to delimit the scope and depth of the object
34
being studied as well as to determine the priorities for data collection.
Historical institutional approach
Son (2002b) undertakes to deal with the national variations in social policy
development in Korea and Taiwan. To this end, this study employs a histori-
cal institutional approach.
The historical institutional approach was developed in the late 1970s as a
reaction to the “grand theories” that dominated in the comparative political
studies of the 1950s and the 1960s. The grand theories, developed through
broad and cross-national research, have often highlighted the common fea-
tures and general trends extending across a wide range of countries. An un-
intended consequence of “grand theorizing” has been that it has tended to
35
obscure the role of institutions that structure politics in different countries.
Contrary to the grand theorists, the major concern for the historical insti-
tutionalists has been to develop “intermediate-level categories and concepts
that would facilitate truly comparative research and advance explanatory
36
theory”. To this end, they have drawn attention to the role of institutions in
shaping policy outcomes. They have been particularly attentive to
developing a broader conception of the institutions that matter and in what
37
way they are important. At the same time, the historical institutionalists
have rarely insisted that institutions are the only causal force in politics. In-
stead, they have typically sought to locate institutions in a causal chain that
accommodates a role for other factors, particularly broader socioeconomic
development, political transitions, and the communication and diffusion of
38
ideas and norms.
The general definition of institutions that the historical institutionalists
work with includes both formal institutions and informal rules and proce-
39
dures that structure policy outcomes. Meanwhile, the actual definition of
institutions applied in different studies has varied, largely due to the fact that
34
Yin (1993), p. 21.
35
Thelen and Steinmo (1992), pp. 4-5.
36
Ibid., p. 3.
37
Hall and Taylor, 1996, p. 937.
38
Ibid., p. 942.
39
Ibid., p. 938.
20